Shams-ud-din Iltutmish | Essay on Shams-ud-din Iltutmish | About Shams-ud-din Iltutmish
Shams-ud-din Iltutmish was one among the foremost powerful ruler of Slave family. Shams-ud-din Iltutmish ascended the throne of Old Delhi Sultanate at Delhi in 1211 AD.
The Early life of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish: Although he was born within the family of a noble Ilbani Turk of Central Asia, he was sold-out in his childhood as a slave by his desirous brothers. In a while, he was resold to Qutub-ud-din Aibak. He was handsome and promising young chap for whom even Muhammad of Ghur had a soft corner. Qutub-ud-din created him the ruler Shikar or master of the royal hunt. In later days, Qutub-ud-din gave his girl in a wedding to him and appointed him the governor of Badaun.
Accession to the throne: Iltutmish had his own supporters.When Qutub-ud-din’s death the throne of the Delhi Sultanate had some claimants. Iltutmish was the candidate of the nobility and officers of Delhi that had assumed the position of the premier town of Hindustan. His chief rival Syria Shah of Iran was supported by a celebration at Lahore. However, Iltutmish gained the rank in 1211 A.D.
According to Wikipedia:
Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (died 1236) was the third Muslim Turkic sultan of the Sultanate of Delhi. He was the third ruler of the Mamluk dynasty (or Slave dynasty). He was married to the daughter of Qutb-ud-din Aibak. He became the ruler after fighting Qutb-ud-din’s son. He is said to be the greatest ruler of the slave kings. He was a member of the Ilebar tribe. The first thing he did after becoming a sultan made his kingdom larger. He also shifted his capital from Lahore to Delhi. He had to defend his empire against Mongol invasions. He also had to deal with Rajputs. Iltutmish stopped the Mongol attack in 1221 A.D led by Chenghiz Khan. He completed the Qutb Minar which was started by Qutb-ud-din Aibak. He also built the Quwat-ul-Islam mosque in Delhi.He died in 1236 A.D. He did not think his sons were good rulers. He was succeeded by his daughter, Razia Sultan (also called Radiyya or Raziyya), as the next ruler of Delhi.
History of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish:
From the terribly starting Iltutmish had several difficulties. At that point, the land of Old Delhi was nearly non-existent. Iltutmish found himself master of Delhi and Badaun and therefore the far districts extending from Banaras from the east to the Sivalik hills on the west. However, Punjab was against him. The lord of Multan Kubachah had extended his kingdom to incorporate Bhatinda, Kuhram, and Sarasuti. Taking advantage of the quarrel between Syrian Arab Republic Shah and Iltutmish Kubachah occupied Lahore. Taking the chance of uncertainty that prevailed within the then Delhi, Bengal and Bihar conjointly cut their reference to Old Delhi. Ali Mardan of Lakshanauti declared himself a freelance ruler.
The Hindustani rulers who were conquered by Muhammad of Ghur and Qutub-ud-din earlier conjointly refused to simply accept Iltutmish’s suzerainty. These Hindustani kingdoms were attempting to regain their power. Jalor, Ranthambhor, Ajmer, Gwalior, and Doab all declared independence. Additionally to those, Taj-ud-din Yulduz saved the sovereign right of entire Hindustan. Even in a city a number of the royal guards enter into a conspiracy and alliance with Syrian Arab Republic Shah’s party and rose in rebellion.
Success of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish:
On such a hot moment ruler Iltutmish became the king. He was a prudent and realist king. He smells well his insecure position and thus determined to compromise with Yulduz who was advancing to Delhi with a giant army. Iltutmish imitative to acknowledge the overlordship of Yulduz and accepted from him the royal badge or the cover and also the mace.
Using his clever diplomatic ability he tactfully places down Syria Shah’s party at Delhi and brought the Turkish guards underneath his management. Once he found himself free from the interior troubles he turned to settle his disputes with Yulduz.
Meanwhile, Yulduz had expelled Qubachah from Lahore and occupied the best a part of Punjab. However, shortly afterward he himself was expelled from Ghazni by the Khwarizm Shah of Iran and took shelter in Lahore. Iltutmish marched against him and defeated him. The conclusion enabled Iltutmish to severe all relation with Gazni. In 1217, he conjointly annexed Lahore by defeating Qubachah.
Expansion of Empire by Shams-ud-din Iltutmish:
Meanwhile, Iltutmish was visage with the menace of Mongol invasion. Changiz Khan was the good mortal leader of the Mongols.
Chasing the fugitive ruler of Khwarizm, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, Changiz reached Afghanistan. Jalal-ud-din Mingburnu wanted refuge to Iltutmish. Iltutmish dared to not risk the invasion of a dangerous and powerful trespasser like Changiz. So, although out of princely prescript and discourteous he providentially refused to present asylum to the Khwarizm aristocrat.
Changiz, however, didn’t enter Hindustan and came back from Afghanistan. The infant Turkish land of Delhi was therefore saved from an excellent disaster. Mingburnu who had occupied Punjab from Qubachah conjointly left in 1224. Taking the chance Iltutmish occupied Bhatinda, Kuhram and Sarasuti. He then occupied Multan. The states of Multan and Sindh, therefore, became an integral a part of Delhi.
Iltutmish currently was unengaged to conquer province and Bengal. Shortly Bengal and province were reconquered and therefore the ruler separated the provinces and appointed 2 governors every for Bengal and Bihar. Rajputana was conjointly reconquered by Iltutmish. Ranthambhor, Jalor, Mandor, Bayana, Thangir, Ajmer, Sambhor, Jodhpur, Gwalior all fell short. Next came the flip of Doab region. Badaun, Kanauj, Banaras all were reconquered by Iltutmish one by one.
He not solely recovered all the territories conquered by Muhammad of Ghur in Hindustan, however afterward lost, however conjointly additional to them a substantial territory in Rajputana and therefore the northern elements of the trendy Uttar Pradesh. He conjointly designed many Mosques, Dargah and different buildings for the pilgrims.
Iltutmish conjointly additional an excellent ethical status to the territorial conquests of the Turkish land. He saved it from the threat of a terrible Mongol invasion before that the older and mightier empires of the Central Asia had fallen with terrible crash. By his tactfulness, prudence and capability he reduced his Turkish rivals to submission and obligatory the Sultan’s can upon them.
Death of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish:
Iltutmish died in April 1236. However, before his death, he arranged the inspiration of a military autarchy that was later on additional reinforced by the Khaljis.