GATE Syllabus for Chemistry-(CY) | Physical Chemistry

GATE Syllabus for Chemistry-(CY) | GATE Syllabus for CY

The GATE Syllabus for Chemistry-(CY) consists of:

1 Physical Chemistry
2 Inorganic Chemistry
3 Organic Chemistry

GATE Syllabus for Chemistry-(CY)

1-PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS:

The Physical Chemistry syllabus consists of:

a Structure
b Equilibrium
c Kinetics
d Surfaces and Interfaces

(a)-STRUCTURE:

1 Postulates of quantum mechanics
2  Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger equations
3  Born interpretation
4  Particle in a box
5 Harmonic oscillator
6 Rigid rotor
7 Hydrogen atom
8 Atomic orbitals
9 Multi-electron atoms
10 Orbital approximation
11 Variation and first order perturbation techniques
12 Chemical bonding
13 Valence bond theory and LCAO-MO theory
14  Hybrid orbitals
15  Applications of LCAO-MOT to H2+
16 H2 and other homonuclear diatomic molecules
17 Heteronuclear diatomic molecules like HF, CO, NO, and to simple delocalized π electron systems
18  Hückel approximation and its application to annular π – electron systems
19 Symmetry elements and operations
20 Point groups and character tables
21 Origin of selection rules for rotational
22 Vibrational, electronic and Raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules
23  Einstein coefficients
24 Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator strength
25 Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance
26 Nuclear g factor, chemical shift, nuclear coupling

 (b)-EQUILIBRIUM:

1 Laws of thermodynamics
2 Standard states
3  Thermochemistry
4 Thermodynamic functions and their relationships
5 Gibbs-Helmholtz and Maxwell relations
6  van’t Hoff equation
7 Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium
8  Absolute entropy
9 Partial molar quantities
10 Thermodynamics of mixing
11 Chemical potential
12 Fugacity, activity and activity coefficients
13  Chemical equilibria
14 Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature and pressure
15 Non-ideal solutions
16 Ionic mobility and conductivity
17 Debye-Hückel limiting law
18 Debye-Hückel-Onsager equation
19 Standard electrode potentials and electrochemical cells
20  Potentiometric and conductometric titrations
21  Phase rule
22 ClausiusClapeyron equation
23 Phase diagram of one component systems
24  CO2, H2O, S
25  Two component systems
26 Liquid-vapour
27  Fractional distillation
28 Azeotropes and eutectics
29  Liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems
30  Statistical thermodynamics
31 Microcanonical and canonical ensembles
32 Boltzmann distribution
33  Partition functions and thermodynamic properties

(c)-KINETICS:

1 Transition state theory
2 Eyring equation
3 Thermodynamic aspects
4 Potential energy surfaces and classical trajectories
5  Elementary, parallel, opposing and consecutive reactions
6 Steady state approximation
7 Mechanisms of complex reactions
8 Unimolecular reactions
9 Kinetics of polymerization and enzyme catalysis
10 Fast reaction kinetics
11  Relaxation and flow methods
12 Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes

(d)-SURFACES AND INTERFACES:

1 Physisorption and chemisorption
2 Langmuir, Freundlich, and BET isotherms
3 Surface catalysis
4  Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism
5  Surface tension
6  Viscosity
7  Self-assembly
8  Physical chemistry of colloids
9  Micelles and macromolecules

2-INORGANIC CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS:

The Inorganic chemistry syllabus consists of:

a Main group elements
b Transition elements
c Lanthanides and Actinides
d Organometallics
e Radioactivity
f Bioinorganic Chemistry
g Solids
h Instrumental methods of analysis

(a)-MAIN GROUP ELEMENTS:

1 Hydrides, halides, oxides, oxoacids, nitrides, sulfides
2 Shapes and reactivity
3 Structure and bonding of boranes
4 Carboranes, silicones, silicates, boron nitride
5  Borazines and phosphazenes
6 Allotropes of carbon
7 Chemistry of noble gases
8 Pseudohalogens, and interhalogen compounds
9 Acid-base concepts

(b)-TRANSITION ELEMENTS:

1 Coordination chemistry
2 Structure and isomerism
3  Theories of bonding (VBT, CFT, and MOT)
4  Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields
5  CFSE, applications of CFT
6 Jahn-Teller distortion
7  Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes
8  Spectroscopic term symbols
9  Selection rules
10  Orgel diagrams
11 Charge-transfer spectra
12 Magnetic properties of transition metal complexes
13 Reaction mechanisms
14 kinetic and thermodynamic stability
15 Substitution and redox reactions

(c)-LANTHANIDES AND ACTINIDES:

1 Recovery
2 Periodic properties
3 Spectra and magnetic properties

(d)-ORGANOMETALLICS:

1 18-Electron rule
2 Metal-alkyl, metal-carbonyl
3 Metal-olefin and metalcarbene complexes and metallocenes
4 Fluxionality in organometallic complexes
5 Types of organometallic reactions
6 Homogeneous catalysis
7 Hydrogenation
8 Hydroformylation
9 Acetic acid synthesis
10 Metathesis and olefin oxidation
11 Heterogeneous catalysis
12 FischerTropsch reaction
13 Ziegler-Natta polymerization

(e)-RADIOACTIVITY:

1 Decay processes
2 Half-life of radioactive elements
3 Fission and fusion processes

(f)-BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY:

1 Ion (Na+ and K+) transport
2 Oxygen binding
3 Transport and utilization
4 Electron transfer reactions
5 Nitrogen fixation
6 Metalloenzymes containing magnesium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc

(g)-SOLIDS:

1 Crystal systems and lattices
2 Miller planes
3 Crystal packing
4 Crystal defects
5 Bragg’s law
6 Ionic crystals
7 Structures of AX, AX2, ABX3 type compounds
8 Spinels, band theory
9 Metals and semiconductors

(h)-INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS:

1 UV-visible spectrophotometry
2 NMR and ESR spectroscopy
3 Mass spectrometry
4 Chromatography including GC and HPLC
5 Electroanalytical methods
6 Polarography, cyclic voltammetry
7 Ion-selective electrodes
8 Thermoanalytical methods

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3-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS:

The Organic Chemistry syllabus consists of:

a Stereochemistry
b Reaction mechanism
c Organic synthesis
d Pericyclic reactions and photochemistry
e Heterocyclic compounds
f Biomolecules
g Spectroscopy

 (a)-STEREOCHEMISTRY:

1 Chirality of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and determination of their absolute configurations
2 Relative stereochemistry in compounds having more than one stereogenic centre
3 Homotopic, enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms
4 Groups and faces
5  Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis
6 Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds
7 Geometrical isomerism
8  Configurational and conformational effects
9 Neighbouring group participation on reactivity and selectivity/specificity

(b)-REACTION MECHANISM:

1 Basic mechanistic concepts
2 Kinetic versus thermodynamic control
3 Hammond’s postulate and Curtin
4 Hammett principle
5 Methods of determining reaction mechanisms through identification of products
6  Intermediates and isotopic labeling
7 Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and aliphatic)
8  Addition reactions to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom (N, O) multiple bonds
9 Elimination reactions
10 Reactive intermediates – carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, arynes and free radicals
11 Molecular rearrangements involving electron deficient atoms

(c)-ORGANIC SYNTHESIS:

1  Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving the following classes of compounds – alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, nitriles, halides, nitro compounds, amines and amides
2  Uses of Mg, Li, Cu, B, Zn and Si-based reagents in organic synthesis
3  Carbon-carbon bond formation through coupling reactions
4  Heck, Suzuki, Stille, and Sonogoshira
5  Concepts of multistep synthesis
6  Retrosynthetic analysis
7  Strategic disconnections
8  Synthons and synthetic equivalents
9  Umpolung reactivity – formyl and acyl anion equivalents
10  Selectivity in organic synthesis – chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity
11 Protection and deprotection of functional groups
12 Concepts of asymmetric synthesis – resolution (including enzymatic), desymmetrization and use of chiral auxiliaries
13 Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions through enolates, enamines and silyl enol ethers
14 Michael addition reaction
15 Stereoselective addition to C=O groups (Cram and Felkin-Anh models)

(d)-PERICYCLIC REACTIONS AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY:

1 Electrocyclic
2 Cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions
3 Orbital correlations
4 FMO and PMO treatments
5 Photochemistry of alkenes
6 Arenes and carbonyl compounds
7 Photooxidation and photoreduction
8 Di-π-methane rearrangement
9 Barton reaction

(e)-HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS:

1 Structure, preparation
2 Properties and reactions of furan
3 Pyrrole, thiophene
4 Pyridine, indole
5 Quinoline and isoquinoline

(f)-BIOMOLECULES:

1 Structure, properties, and reactions of mono- and di-saccharides
2 Physicochemical properties of amino acids
3 Chemical synthesis of peptides
4 Structural features of proteins
5 Nucleic acids, steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids

(g)-SPECTROSCOPY:

1 Applications of UV-visible
2 IR, NMR and Mass spectrometry in the structural determination of organic molecules
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